Penalties Report

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This report seeks to codify penalties for violation of competition laws from around the globe. Where possible, the competition law, itself, is the source for information penalties. In some circumstances, secondary sources (e.g., competition authority reports) were used to determine how a nation punishes infringements of its competition laws.

Imprisonment is only coded when it is a punishment for violation of anticompetitive practices. Imprisonment for failure to cooperate with competition authority proceedings or failure to pay fines was not included in this report.


Country Fines Jail Comment


Albania Y N Art. 73-78 of Law No. 9121, dated July 28, 2003 On Competition Protection discuss fines.[1]

Maximum one-time fine can be as much as 10% of "the total turnover of the preceding business year of each of the undertakings participating in the infringement" of the Act.

Periodic penalties can also be imposed, "... periodic penalty payments not exceeding 5% of the average daily turnover in the preceding business year which is calculated from the date the decision has been taken ..."

Algeria Y N Articles 56-62 of the Algerian Competition Statute discuss fines.[2]

The statute provides for fines of up to 7% of annual sales or of up to 3,000,000 dinars. The Commission has recommended a fine of 350,000 FF upon a firm abusing its dominant position,[3]

Argentina Y N Article 46(b) of Defensa de la Competencia, Ley 25.156 promulgada septiembre 16 de 1999 imposes fines.[4]

Fines range from 15,000 to 150,000,000 pesos.

Armenia Y N Art. 36 of The Law of the Republic of Armenia on Protection of Economic Competition imposes fines.[5]

Abuse of a dominant position leads to a fine of up to 5000 times the baseline duty. Mergers resulting in abuses of dominant positions lead to fines of up to 4000 times the baseline duty. Failure to submit materials to the competition commission leads to fines up to 100 times the baseline duty.

Australia Y N Section 76 of the Trade Practices Act authorizes fines.[6]

Corporations can be fined up to $10,000,000 per infraction, or triple the amount of their illegal benefit (if benefit not ascertainable, 10% of annual turnover).

Individuals can be fined up to $500,000 per infraction, and corporate directors and officers may be barred from holding corporate offices.[7]

Austria Y Y Articles 29 and 35 of the Federal Law Against Cartels and Other Restraints provide for fines.[8]

Fines can be imposed "up to a maximum amount of 10% of the gross income against an entrepreneur or an entrepreneur combination, a that or a those, obtained in the preceeding financial year, deliberately or negligently ..."

Collusive tendering constitutes a criminal offence under section 168b Criminal Code and is punishable by imprisonment of up to three years.

Azerbaijan Y N Articles 17 and 18 of the Law of the Azerbaijan Republic

About antimonopoly activity provide for fines.[9][10]

Article 17 states that forcing violators to repay their ill-gotten profits is an accepted penalty. Amended article 18 provides for fines for corporate officials for failing to notify a merger of up to 5,000 minimum wages for corporations and 150 minimum wages for corporate officers.

Bangladesh  ?  ? While Bangladesh inherited a competition statute from Pakistan, it was never ratified. Please see the Wiki Page for more.
Barbados Y Y Sections 15 and 20 of the Fair Competition Act provide for fines.[11]

Fines for individuals can reach $150K. Fines for corporate entities can reach $500K or 10% of turnover. Section 43 of the Fair Competition Act provides for prison sentences.

The Act provides for prison sentences of up to six months.

Belarus Y N The competition authority can impose fines.[12]
Belgium Y N Article 63 of the Belgian Act on the Protection of Economic Competition provides for fines.[13]

Fines may reach 10% of annual turnover for companies, and 1% of turnover for individuals.

Bolivia  ?  ? As of 2008, Bolivia adopted new competition legislation. An English translation is currently unavailable.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Y N Article 48 of the Act on Competition provides for fines.[14]

Individuals or firms can be fined "at most 10 (ten)% of value of its total annual income earned in the financial year preceding the year when the infringement is committed." Additionally, fines can range from "15.000 KM to 50.000 KM."

Brazil Y N Brazil uses Fiscal Reference Units (UFIR)

Companies are liable for, "a fine from one to thirty percent of the gross pretax revenue thereof as of the latest financial year, which fine shall by no means be lower than the advantage obtained from the underlying violation."

Individuals are liable for, "a fine from ten to fifty percent of the fine imposed on said company, which shall be personally and exclusively imposed on the manager."

If these cannot be calculated, companies and individuals are liable for 6,000 to 6,000,000 UFIR in fines.

Moreover, "Fines imposed on recurring violations shall be doubled."[15]

If the individual or firm does not discontinue the illegal activity, they will be fined 5,000 UFIR daily - and this can be multiplied up to 20X.[16]

Bulgaria Y N Articles 59-60 of the Law on Competition Protection provide for fines.[17]

Fines for companies range from BGN 5,000 to 300,000. If infractions continue, fines move-up to BGN 100,000 to 500,000. Failure to comply with a decision of the competition authority results in a fine of BGN 100,000 to 500,000.

Fines for individuals range from BGN 1,000 to 10,000. If infractions continue, fines move-up to BGN 2,000 to 20,000.

Burkina Faso Y Y Articles 53-65 of Loi 15/94 du 5 mai 1994 discuss penalties[18]

The statute provides for fines of up to 25,000,000 CFA francs and prison sentences of up to 2 years for competition violations.

Cameroon Y N Article 27 of Cameroon's competition statute discusses fines.[19]

Competition violations may result in fines of up to 50% of a firm's Cameroon profits or 20% of its turnover.

Canada Y Y Numerous articles of the Competition Act,[20] including §79(3)(1), §47, and §45(1), provide for fines.

The fines for conspiracies can reach $10 million. The fines for abusive monopolies can reach $15 million.

Numerous articles of the Competition Act,[21] including §47, §61(9), and §45(1), provide for prison sentences.

Violations can result in prison sentences of up to 5 years.

Chile Y  ? Article 26(c) of Law 211 of 1973, last amended in 2005, provides for fines.[22]

Fines may reach 20,000 Annual Tax Units for corporate entities, their officers, managers, and culpable employees.

China Y N Articles 46-49 of the Anti-Monopoly Law of the People's Republic of China discuss fines[23]

Fines for competition violations can reach 10% of the previous year's sales revenue.

Colombia Y N Articles 55-58 of the competition statute discuss fines[24]

The statute provides for fines of between 100-150% of a corporate violator's ill-gotten gains, or penalties of 100,000 monthly minimum wages. For culpable individuals, the fines can reach 2000 times the monthly wage.

Costa Rica Y Y Article 25 of the Law for the Promotion of Competition provides for penalties, as does the Criminal code for issues of noncompliance with regulatory orders.[25][26]

Fines of up to 680 times the monthly minimum wage accrue for serious competition violations. Failure to comply with the orders of the Commission can lead to a year in jail.

Cote d'Ivoire Y  ? Articles 17-18 of Law No. 91-999 of 27 December 1991 on Competition allows for fines.[27]

Fines for companies can reach 5% of turnover. Fines for individuals can reach 1,000,000 FF.[28]

Croatia Y N Articles 61-63 of the statute provide for fines.[29]

Fines for competition violations can be up to 10% of the prior year's turnover for undertakings plus 200,000 Kuna.

Cyprus Y Y Penalties are provided by Protection of Competition Law 2008[30]

Fines of up to 10% of the past year's revenue, plus daily penalties of up to 85,000 Euros may accrue. Persisting in anticompetitive behavior after an order from the Commission to stop may result in prison sentences of up to two years.

Czech Republic Y N Article 22 governs the impositions of fines. The Office for the Protection of Competition may impose fines "up to CZK 10,000,000 or up to 10% of the net turnover achieved in the last expired accounting period."[31]
Denmark Y N Article 23 of the Competition Act allows for fines.[32]

The statue provides for fines, but does not specify the amount of the fines. Article 23(3) states that annual turnover is one factor to be considered when assessing a fine.

Egypt Y N Article 22 of Law No. 3 of 2005, the Law on the Protection of Competition and the Prohibition of Monopolistic Practices of February 15, 2005 provides for fines.[33]

The fines can range from 30,000 - 10,000,000 Egyptian pounds.

El Salvador Y N Article 38 of the Competition Law provides for fines[34]

Fines for violations can reach up to "five thousand minimum monthly urban wages in the industrial sector."

Estonia Y Y Articles 62, 73, and 79 of the Competition Act provide for fines.[35]

The Act provides for fines of up to 300 fine units for individuals, and 500,000 Kroons for legal persons.

Articles 73 and 79 of the Competition Act provides for prison sentences.

Abuses of dominance, restrictive agreements, and failure to notify mergers can result in up to three years in jail.

Faroe Island[36] Y N Part 8, Article 31.1 of the Competition Act provides for the imposition of fines.[37]

The statute provides for the imposition of fines for competition violations. Additionally, Article 31.4 provides for confiscation of gains stemming from violations.

Fiji Y N Section 124A of the Fair Trading Decree (contained in the 1998 Amendment) provides for fines[38][39]

Fines can be up to $1M per act for companies, and $300,000 total for an individual.

Finland Y N Articles 7, 11, 13, 14, and 17 of the Act on Competition Restrictions provide for fines[40]

The statue provides for fines of up to 10% of annual turnover.

France Y Y Article 420-6 of the French Commercial Code[41] discusses competition penalties.

The statute provides for fines of up to 75,000 Euros and prison sentences of up to 4 years for competition violations.

Article 430-8 of the Commercial Code[42] discusses penalties for unauthorized mergers.

The statute provides for fines to corporations of up to 5% of annual turnover, and for fines to individuals of up to 1.5 million Euros.

Georgia N N
Germany Y N Chapter 81 of the Act Against Restraints of Competition discusses fines.[43]

The Act provides for fines of up to 1 million Euros or 10% of total turnover for the prior year. Further guidelines for fining can be found in the Administrative Offences Act.

Greece Y N Article 29 of the Act on the Control of Monopolies and Oligopolies and the Protection of Free Competition of 26 September 1977, as last amended by Act of 3 August 2000 provides for fines.[44]

The statute provides for fines of up to 15% of the prior year's turnover for competiton violations. For failure to notify a merger, the fines may reach 7% of annual turnover.

Greenland[45] Y N The text of the competition statute is unavailable. Please see the Wiki page on Greenland for more details.
Guatemala Y Y Guatemala's criminal code provides for fines and prison for certain competition violations.[46][47]

Fines can reach 10,000 quetzals, and prison sentences can reach five years.

Guyana Y N Article 48 of the Competition and Fair Trading Act provides for fines.[48]

Fines can reach $1M for individuals and $10M for corporations. If the Commission's orders to cease an abuse of dominance are not followed, fines can reach $50M.

Hong Kong [49] N N Hong Kong has a competition policy board, which regards certain practices as raising suspicion, but, " For Hong Kong, a small and externally-oriented economy which is already highly competitive, the Government sees no need to enact an all-embracing competition law. To maintain overall consistency in the application of the competition policy, we provide a comprehensive, transparent and over-arching competition policy framework through this Policy Statement and reinforce this with sector-specific measures not limited to laws."[50]
Honduras Y N Article 37 and following deal with imposing fines.[51]
Hungary Y Y Article 78 of LVII of 1996 on the Prohibition of Unfair and Restrictive Market Practices as amended July 2004 provides for fines.[52]

The statute provides for fines of up to 10% of annual turnover.

The Hungarian Criminal Code provides for criminal sanctions, but only when restrictive practices are involved in bid rigging.[53]

Prison sentences can be up to five years.

Iceland Y Y Articles 37-39 and 41-42 of the Competition Act provide for fines and prison sentences.[54]

The statute provides for fines ranging from 50,000 ISK to 10% of yearly turnover. Articles 41 and 42 provide for prison sentences of up to six years.

India Y Y Articles 27 and 42-48 of the Competition Act, 2002, discuss penalties.[55]

Penalties for competition violations can reach 10% of average annual turnover or three times the ill-gotten gains from cartel arrangements (in the case of non-cartel violations, the treble damages do not apply).

Failure to comply with the orders of the Commission to cease anticompetitive practices can result in prison sentences of one year, and may also result in fines.

Indonesia Y Y Articles 47-49 of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 5 of 1999 Concerning the Ban on Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Business Competition discuss penalties.[56]

Fines for violations can range from 1 billion to 100 billion rupiah, plus state-ordered compensation. Under Article 48, some violations may result in prison sentences of up to 6 months.

Iran  ?  ? As of 2008, Iran lacks comprehensive competition legislation. The economic legislation dealing with monopoly is not extensive and does not specify penalties.[57]
Ireland Y Y Article 8 of the Competition Act, 2002, provides for both fines and jail time.[58]

The statute provides for fines for companies of up to the greater of 4,000,000 Euros or 10% of the past year's turnover. It provides for the same fines for individuals, plus the possibility of up to five years in prison.

Israel Y Y Articles 47-48 of the Restrictive Trade Practices Law provide for fines and prison sentences[59]

Fines can range to ten times the fines provided in the Israeli Penal Law. Additionally, violations can result in prison sentences of up to three years.

Italy Y N Law no. 287/90 allows fines for violations.[60]

Section 14-bis allows fines if interim measures are ordered but companies fail to comply. Section 14-ter permits fines if ccompanies fail to keep commitments they have made to rectify anti-competitive conduct. Section 15 allows fines of up to 10% of annual turnover for failure to remedy violations, depending on the gravity and duration of the infringement. Section 19 imposes fines of up to 10% of annual turnover for failure to comply with prohibitions on concentrations or the merger notification requirement.

Jamaica Y Y Sections 45-47 of the Fair Competition Act discuss penalties.[61]

The statute provides for fines of up to a million dollars for competition violations, and prison sentences of up to two years for refusing to comply with the Commission's requirements.

Japan Y Y Articles 89-100 of the Act on Prohibition of Private Monopolization and Maintenance of Fair Trade discuss penalties[62]

Violations can result in fines of up to 5 million yen or prison sentences of up to 3 years.

Jersey, Channel Islands[63] Y N Article 39 of the Competition (Jersey) Law provides for fines.[64]

Fines for violations may reach 10% of turnover for every year that violations occurred, up to a maximum of three years.

Jordan Y N Articles 20-26 of the Competition Law provide for fines[65]

The statute provides for fines of 1-5% of total annual revenue. If revenues cannot be determined, a fine of 1000-50,000 dinars can be imposed. For merger violations, the fine is between 1000 and 50,000 dinars.

Kazakhstan Y N Article 38 of the statute discusses penalties.[66]

The statute permits fines up to the amount of the gain from monopoly.

Kenya Y Y Articles 21, 26, and 27 of the Restrictive Trade Practices, Monopolies and Price Control Act discuss penalties.[67]

Article 21 of the statute provides for fines of up to 100,000 and two years imprisonment for violations which continue despite the Minister's orders to cease them. Articles 26 and 27 provide for fines of 200,000 shillings and three years imprisonment for unauthorized or prohibited mergers.

Kyrgyzstan[68] Y Y Articles 11, 20, and 22 of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on the Limitation of Monopolistic Activities, Development and Protection of Competition provide for fines.[69]

The statute provides for fines of 5,000 soms or 3X the monthly wage for individuals. Article 22 allows the transfer of ill-gotten gains from violators to the state.


Article 11 also implies that criminal prosecutions for violations of the law are possible.

Lao PDR  ? N Article 14 of the Decree on Trade Competition deals with penalties.[70]

The statute mentions that violators may be required to compensate businesses injured by their anticompetitive behavior, but the mechanism for such compensation and its extent are unspecified.

Latvia Y N Sections 12, 14, 17 and 19 of The Competition Law of 4.10.2001 provide for fines.[71]

The statute provide for fines of up to 10% of annual turnover (minimum 250 lati) for illegal agreements, 5% for abuse of dominance (subject to a raise to 10% upon noncompliance with "legally imposed obligations"), and 1000 lati per day for merger violations.

Section 28 of The Competition Law of 4.10.2001 permits fines for violations of EU competition law, in accordance with Sections 12(5) and 14(4) of the Latvian Competition Law.[72]

Lithuania Y N Article 41 of the Law on Competition provides for fines.[73]

Fines for violations may reach 10% of gross annual income.

Luxembourg Y N Articles 18-20 of the Loi du 17 mai 2004 relative à la concurrence provide for fines.[74]

Fines of up to 10% of greatest annual turnover during the violations may accrue. Additionally, fines may accrue for delays in ceasing anticompetitive behavior.

Macedonia Y N Articles 8-9 of the 2007 competition statute amendment[75] discuss penalties.

The statute permits fines of up to 20,000 Euros or 10% of the company's annual income for serious violations.

Malawi Y Y Article 51 of the Malawi Competition and Fair Trading Bill, 1998, provides for fines and imprisonment.[76]

The statute provides for fines of up to the greater of a violator's ill-gotten gains or K500,000. It also provides for imprisonment of up to five years.

Mali Y Y Articles 31-43 of Ordonnance No. 90-021/P-CTSP Instituant la Liberte des Prix et de la Concurrence provide for fines and prison sentences.[77][78]

The fines can range from 200,000 to 30,000,000 francs. (Fines for cartels and abuse of dominance range from 3,000,000 to 30,000,000 francs). Prison sentences of up to 5 years may be imposed. Punishments are doubled for repeat offenders.

Malta Y N Article 21 of Malta's competition law discusses fines.[79]

The statute provides for fines of up to 10% of annual corporate turnover for competition violations.

Mauritius Y Y Articles 14, 25, and 26 of The Competition Bill provide for fines and prison sentences.[80]

The statue provides for fines of up to 500,000 rupees and/or two years in jail for competition violations. Article 14 provides a more severe penalty for bid rigging of a 500,000 rupee fine or five years in jail.

Mexico Y N Articles 35-38 of the Federal Law of Economic Competition provide for fines.[81]

Fines can be up to 100,000 times the general minimum Federal District wage in cases of merger without required notification or restrictive trade practices.

Moldova  ?  ? Current statute unavailable in English.
Mongolia Y N Article 18 of the statute discusses fines.[82]

Competition violators face fines of up to 2.5 million togrogs (corporations)and up to 60,000 togrogs for officials.

Morocco Y Y Articles 67-70 of Dahir no. 1-00-225 of 2 rabil I 1421 promulgating law no. 06-99, concerning freedom of prices and competition provide for fines and imprisonment.[83]

The statute provides for fines of up to 500,000 dirhams (up to 1,000,000 dirhams in special circumstances involving price fixing of food, fuel, or medicines). For corporations, penalties can range from 2-5% of pretax reveune.

Prison sentences for violations can be up to one year (up to five years in special circumstances involving price fixing of food, fuel, or medicines). Additionally, the statute mentions that other provisions of the penal code may apply to some competition violations.

Namibia Y N Article 53 of the Competition Act of 2003 provides for fines.[84]

The statute provides for fines of up to 10% of annual turnover.

Netherlands Y N Articles 56-57, and 71-75 of Law No. 1997/242 of 22 May 1997 provide for fines.[85]

For abuse of dominant position and restrictive agreements, the fine can reach the greater of 10% of annual turnover, or 450,000 Euros. For unauthorized or anticompetitive mergers, the fine to the responsible individual can be up to 22,500 Euros, plus additional, periodic penalty payments.

New Zealand y N Sections 80-Section 89[86] of the Commerce Act discuss penalties.

Section 80 allows courts to impose fines up to the greater of $10M, or triple the profits accruing from the violation (if this can't be determined, 10% of corporate turnover).

Nicaragua  ?  ?  ?
Nigeria Y Y Article 122 of the Investment and Securities decree provides for fines and prison sentences, but only regarding mergers[87]

The statute provides for a fine of up to N 100,000 or a year in jail for unauthorized mergers.

Norway Y Y Articles 28-30 of the Competition Act of 2004 provide for fines. Article 30 also provides for prison sentences.[88]

Articles 28-30 provide for administrative fines, but do not specify the amount of the fines. However, the Norwegian Competition Authority reports two companies being fined roughly 2.5 million and 5.6 million Euros. [89][90]

Article 30 provides for prison sentences of up to three years for violations. For particularly egregious violations of the laws against restrictive agreements, prison sentences of up to six years may be imposed.

Pakistan Y N Article 19 of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (Control and Prevention) Ordinance provides for fines.[91]

The statute provides for fines of up to 100,000 rupees. For continuing violations/ignoring the orders of the Authority, an additional fine of 10,000 rupees/day may be added.

Panama Y N Article 112 provides for fines imposed by the government of up to 1 million Balboas. Article 27 provides for treble damages and costs in civil actions.[92]
Papua New Guinea Y N Articles 87 and 95 of The Independent Consumer and Competition Act 2002 provide for fines.[93]

Penalties for competition violations and merger violations may reach K500,000 for individuals, and K10,000,000 for corporations.

Peru Y N[94] Article 23 of Legislative Decree 701 provides for fines.[95]

The statute provides for fines of up the lesser of 1,000 UITs[96] or 10% of annual gross sales. Corporate officials may be fined up to 100 UITs.

Poland Y N Articles 106-113 of the Act of 16 February 2007 on Competition and Consumer Protection discuss fines[97]

Fines can reach 10% of annual revenue for competition violations and unauthorized mergers. Additionally, fines for corporate officers may reach fifty times the average salary.

Portugal Y N Articles 43-47 of Law No. 18/2003 of 11 June provide for fines.[98]

The statute provides for fines of up to 10% of annual turnover for competition violations. The fine is set to 1% of annual turnover for failing to notify mergers, but additional penalty payments may be tacked onto the 1% fine in the case of delay.

Romania Y Y Articles 55-62 of the Competition Law provide for fines. Article 63 provides for jail time.[99]

Fines can reach 1% of annual turnover for failing to notify a merger, and 10% of annual turnover for abuse of a dominant position, restrictive agreements, and conducting a forbidden merger.

The statute allows prison sentences of up to four years for key players who engage in competition violations with fraudulent intent.

Russia Y N Federal Law No. 25-FZ discusses fines.[100]

Chapter 14 of the statute provides for fines for corporations of up to 2% of annual corporate proceeds for competition violations. It also provides for fines for corporate officials.

Saudi Arabia Y N Articles 12-16 of the statute discuss penalties.

There is a fine of up to 5 million riyals for competition violations. Daily fines of up to 10,000 riyals may also accrue for violations.[101]

Senegal Y N Articles 11-13 of the Loi No 94-63 du 22 aout 1994 sur les prix, la concurrence, et le contentieux economique discuss fines.[102]

The Commission may impose fines, and fines for noncompliance with Commission orders can range from 100,000 to 30,000,000 CFA francs.

Serbia Y N Articles 71 and 72 of the 2005 Law on Protection of Competition[103] discuss penalties.

The statute allow for fines of up to 10% of annual corporate income for serious violations.

Singapore Y N Article 69 of the Competition Act provides for fines and prison sentences; regulations on fines are further spelled out by the Competition Commission of Singapore.[104][105]

Fines can reach up to 10% of annual turnover for every year of infringement - up to a maximum of three years.

Slovak Republic Y N Article 38 of the Act of 27 February 2001 on Protection of Competition discusses fines.[106]

The statue provides for fines of up to 10% of annual turnover, or up to 10 million SKK for companies with small or indeterminate turnover.

Slovenia Y N Articles 52-53 of the Prevention of the Restriction of Competition Act discuss penalties[107]

The statute provides for a penalty of up to 90,000,000 SIT for corporate entities and up to SIT 3,000,000 for responsible individuals.

South Africa Y Y Articles 59 and 74 of the statute discuss penalties.[108]

Article 59 of the statute allows for fines of up to 10% of annual corporate turnover. Article 74 allows for fines of up to 500,000 Rand or 10 years imprisonment for engaging in prohibited conduct in violation of a Commission order, and lesser penalties for other infractions.

South Korea Y Y Articles 6 and 22 of the Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act provide for fines, as do articles 66 and 67.[109]

Under Article 6, fines for abuse of dominance can reach up to 3% of turnover, or 1 billion won. Under Article 22, fines for restrictive agreements can reach 10% of turnover, or 2 billion won. Articles 66-67 provide for fines of up to 200 million won for individuals.

Articles 66-67 of the Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act provide for jail time for competition offenses.

Under Articles 66 and 67, competition violations can result in prison sentences of up to 3 years.

Spain[110] Y N The statute provides for fines.

Fines can reach 10% of turnover for undertakings, and 60,000 Euros for individuals.[111]

Sri Lanka Y Y Section 37 of the Fair Trading Commission Act, No. 1 of 1987 provides for penalties.[112]

The statute provides for fine of up to 5000 rupees, and/or imprisonment of up to one year.

Sweden Y N Articles 26-28 and 57 of the Swedish Competition Act provide for fines.[113]

Fines may reach the greater of 10% of annual turnover or 10 million SKr.

Switzerland Y N Articles 49a-52, 54, and 55 of the Federal Act on Cartels and Other Restraints of Competition provide for fines.[114]

The statute provides for fines of up to 10% of turnover for the last three years for competition violations.

Noncompliance with merger regulations can result in a fine of up to 1,000,000 Swiss francs - for repeat offenders, the fine rises to up to 10% of the revenue of all the involved enterprises. Willful noncompliance with authority orders and decisions can result in fines of up to 100,000 Swiss francs.

Syria Y N Article 23 of the Law on Competition and Prevention of Monopoly [115]discusses fines.

The statute provides for fines of up to 10% of corporate turnover for competition violations.

Taiwan Y Y Articles 35-44 of the Fair Trade Act provide for penalties.[116]

The statute provides for fines of up to 100 million New Taiwan Dollars or three years in prison for violators who refuse to cease their anticompetitive practices after being ordered to do so. The same applies to repeat offenders. Fines for prohibited mergers can reach 50 millions NTD.

Tajikistan Y N Article 16 of the statute provides for fines.[117]
Tanzania Y N Article 60 of the Fair Competition Act of 2003 provides for fines for violations.[118]

The statute provides for fines ranging from 5-10% of annual turnover, plus mandated double damage payments to victims, if their losses can be established.


Thailand Y Y Articles 51-54 of the Trade Competition Act provide for fines and prison sentences for competition violations.[119]

Competition violations can result in fines of up to 6 million Baht and prison sentences of up to three years. The punishments are doubled for repeat offenders.

Trinidad and Tobago Y N Article 44 of the Fair Trading Act, 2006 discusses fines.[120]

Violators of the act face fines of up to 10% of annual corporate turnover.

Tunisia  ?  ? An English version of the statute is currently unavailable.
Turkey Y N Article 16 of the Act on the Protection of Competition provides for fines.[121]

The statute provides for fines for restrictive trade agreements, abuse of dominance, and anticompetitive mergers. The fines can reach 10% of annual gross revenues. Culpable corporate officers/managers may also be fined up to 5% of the fine imposed on the corporation.

Ukraine Y N Article 52 of the 2001 Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Economic Competition provides for fines.[122]

Competition violations can result in fines of up to 10% of annual sales, or 20,000 minimum incomes.

United Arab Emirates N N The United Arab Emirates has been developing a Competition Act since 2006, but as of 2008, the process is not complete.
United Kingdom Y Y Article 190 of the Enterprise Act of 2002[123] and Article 36 of the Competition Act of 1998[124] provide for fines

The amount of the fines in the Enterprise Act are not specified, nor are the fines in the Competition Act.

Article 190 of the Enterprise Act of 2002 provides for prison sentences[125]

The statute provides for imprisonment of up to 5 years for cartel activities.

United States Y Y Sections 1 & 2 of the Sherman Act discuss penalties.[126]

The statute provides for fines of up to $10M for corporations, and $350K for individuals. It also provides for imprisonment of up to three years.

Uruguay Y N Articles 17 and 19 of Ley Nº 18.159 de 20 de julio de 2007 provide for fines.[127]

The statute provides for competition fines of between 100,000 and 20,000,000 indexed units, and/or 10% of annual turnover, and/or triple damages, if determinable. Article 19 also provides for fines for corporate officers who violate merger regulations.

Uzbekistan Y N Articles 17-18 of the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Competition and Restriction of Monopolistic Activity at the Markets discuss penalties.[128]

The statute provides for fines of up to 500 times the monthly minimum salary.

Venezuela Y N Articles 49-51 of the Law to Promote and Protect the Exercise of Free Competition provide for fines.[129]

Some competition violations can result in a fine of up to 20% of the violator's sales. This can be doubled for recidivists. Others can result in a fine of up to 3 million Bolivars. Failure to comply with the Commission's order to cease anticompetitive practices can result in additional fines of up to 1 million Bolivars.

Vietnam Y N Articles 117-118 of the Competition Law of 4 November 2004 provides for fines.[130]

Fines for violations may reach up to 10% of annual turnover in the year preceding the violation.

Zambia Y Y Provisions 8 and 16 of the Competition and Fair Trading Act provide for fines and prison sentences[131]

Provision 8 states that parties entering into unauthorized, anticompetitive mergers are subject to fines of 10 million Kwacha and/or five years in prison.

Provision 16 states that violators of the Act are subject to fines of 10 million Kwacha and/or five years in prison.

Zimbabwe Y Y Articles 29, 34A and 42 of the statute discuss penalties.[132]

Art. 42 provides for fines of up to $50K[133] and prison sentences of up to 2 years for specific competition violations. Article 34A provides for fines of up to 10% of domestic corporate turnover for unauthorized or prohibited mergers.



  1. Statute available from the Global Competition Forum site, at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/europe/Albania/Approved%20Law%209121%20A.pdf
  2. French text of the statute available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20973108~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  3. UN report, http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/c2emd11.pdf
  4. English version of the statute available from the OECD, starting on page 26, at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/2/40/1821895.pdf
  5. Statute online at the International Competition Network website, http://www.internationalcompetitionnetwork.org/media/archive0611/competit.pdf
  6. Statute section available at http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/pasteact/0/115/0/PA004090.htm
  7. From the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, at http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/694995
  8. Google translation of statute available at http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bwb.gv.at%2FBWB%2FGesetze%2FKartellgesetz%2Fdefault.htm&langpair=de%7Cen&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&prev=%2Flanguage_tools
  9. Link to statute from the Global Competition Forum: http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/asia/Azerbeijan/0526.pdf
  10. Also see the amendments to the statute, at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/asia/Azerbeijan/Amendments%20of%201997%20to%20the%20Law%20on%20Antimonopoly%20Activities.pdf (expanding the fining provisions in article 18)
  11. statute available at http://www.commerce.gov.bb/Legislation/Documents/Fair%20Competition%20Act,%20Cap%20326C.pdf
  12. See Article 16(1) of competition statute, http://law.by/work/EnglPortal.nsf/6e1a652fbefce34ac2256d910056d559/4dd2237ccbd3b4e6c2256dc1002932c6?OpenDocument
  13. Statute available at http://www.mineco.fgov.be/organization_market/competition/pdf/law_competition_001_en.pdf
  14. Statute online at http://www.bihkonk.gov.ba/en/laws/low_on_competition_new.pdf
  15. See Article 23 of the competition statute, http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/s_america/Brazil/Legisla%E7%E3o%20Antitruste%20em%20ingl%EAs.PDF
  16. See Id. at Article 25
  17. Statute available from the World Bank, at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCOMPLEGALDB/Resources/LawonCompetitionProtection.pdf
  18. statute available in French online at http://www.artel.bf/Concurrence.html
  19. statute available at http://www.spm.gov.cm/showtexte.php?idtexte=156&lang=en
  20. Competition Act of 23 August 2000, available at http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showtdm/cs/C-34
  21. Competition Act of 23 August 2000, available at http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showtdm/cs/C-34
  22. Statute available at http://www.fne.cl/?content=marco_juridico
  23. the statute can be found at http://china.hktdc.com/content.aspx?data=CHINA_content_en&contentid=970099&src=CN_LawReg&w_sid=194&w_pid=630&w_nid=9927&w_cid=970099&w_idt=1900-01-01&w_oid=180&w_jid=
  24. the statute (in Spanish) is available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:21081155~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  25. Spanish version of statute available at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/n_america/Costa%20Rica/COSTA%20RICA.pdf
  26. summary of penalties (in English) available at http://www.ftaa-alca.org/ngroups/NGCP/Publications/domlaws_e.asp
  27. Statute available in French at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCOMPLEGALDB/Resources/DroitIvoirienConcurrence.pdf , however, an English translation is unavailable.
  28. from a UN Conference on Trade and Development report, at http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/c2emd11.pdf
  29. Statute available online at http://www.aztn.hr/eng/pdf/zakon/zztn.pdf
  30. the statute is currently unavailable in English, but for a summary of the penalty provisions, see the Competition Authority site, at http://www.competition.gov.cy/competition/competition.nsf/faqs_en/faqs_en?OpenDocument#6
  31. http://www.compet.cz/fileadmin/user_upload/Legislativa/legislativa_EN/Act_143_2004.doc
  32. statute available from the Danish Competition Authority at http://www.ks.dk/en/competition/legislation/
  33. Statute available at the World Bank, at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCOMPLEGALDB/Resources/CompetitionLawEnglish.pdf
  34. statute available at http://www.minec.gob.sv/leyes/LeydeCompetencia_english_.pdf
  35. Statute available at http://www.konkurentsiamet.ee/public/competition_act_july_2006.pdf
  36. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing territory of Denmark whose citizens are not members of the EU. For more, see https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fo.html
  37. The statute is available at http://www.kapping.fo/Sites/38/Files/The%20Competition%20Act.pdf
  38. Unamended Fair trading Decree available from the Fiji Commerce Commission at http://www.commcomm.gov.fj/Default.aspx?page=ftDecree
  39. 1998 Amendment available at http://www.commcomm.gov.fj/Default.aspx?page=ftAmAct
  40. Statute available from the Finnish Competition Authority, at http://www.kilpailuvirasto.fi/cgi-bin/english.cgi?luku=legislation&sivu=act-on-competition-restrictions-amended
  41. English translation from Legifrance at http://195.83.177.9/code/liste.phtml?lang=uk&c=32&r=3096
  42. English translation available from Legifrance, at http://195.83.177.9/code/liste.phtml?lang=uk&c=32&r=3097
  43. Statute available in English from the German Competition Authority at http://www.bundeskartellamt.de/wEnglisch/download/pdf/06_GWB_7__Novelle_e.pdf
  44. English text of the statute unavailable. However, guidelines for penalties can be found at the Hellenic Competition Authority site, at http://www.epant.gr/faqs.php?Lang=en&id=127#faq2
  45. Greenland is a self-governing Danish territory. For more, see https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gl.html
  46. Guatemalan competition law covers a limited subset of competition violations. For more details, please see the wiki page on Guatemala
  47. Statute unavailable, secondary source from the Free Trade Area of the Americas, at http://www.ftaa-alca.org/ngroups/NGCP/Publications/domlaws_e.asp
  48. Statute available at http://www.mintic.gov.gy/documents/Competition_and_Fair_Trading_Bill.pdf
  49. While Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of China, it operates with some self-government, including its own economic system.
  50. From COMPAG, Hong Kong's Competition Policy group, at http://www.compag.gov.hk/about/
  51. In Spanish, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:21326341~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  52. statute available at http://www.gvh.hu/domain2/files/modules/module25/jogi/Act_LVII_of_1996.pdf
  53. For more information, please visit http://www.gvh.hu/domain2/files/modules/module25/pdf/kozbeszerzes_2007_a.pdf (the Hungarian Competition Authority), and http://www.freshfields.com/publications/pdfs/2005/complaw2005.pdf
  54. Statute available from the Icelandic Competition Authority, at http://www.samkeppni.is/en/legislation/
  55. statute online at http://www.competition-commission-india.nic.in/Act/competition_act2002.pdf
  56. Statute available at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/asia/Indonesia/uu_monopoli_(english)1.pdf
  57. Iran has legislation which attempts to limit monopoly formation in a number of recently-privatized industries (telecommunications and insurance, among others). However, there isn't a comprehensive monopoly statute, and the petroleum industry remains a monopoly. For details of the legislation, see http://www.salamiran.org/content/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=77&Itemid=129
  58. Statute Available from the Irish Competition Authority at http://www.tca.ie/EnforcingCompetitionLaw/CompetitionLaw/CompetitionLaw.aspx
  59. Statute available at http://www.antitrust.gov.il/Antitrust/en-US/LawandRegulations/RestrictiveTradePracticesLaw.htm
  60. http://www.agcm.it/AGCM_ENG/NORMATIV/E_NORMNA.NSF/b50758bf27025fecc125653d00467db4/d6cd09a87f1832b7802564a000533ce6?OpenDocument
  61. Statute available at http://jftc.com/TheFCA/theact/PDFACT/Fair%20Competition%20Act.pdf
  62. available online from the Japanese Competition Authority at http://www.jftc.go.jp/e-page/legislation/ama/amended_ama.pdf
  63. Jersey is a British Crown dependency but can also make its own laws. For more, see https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/je.html
  64. statute available at http://www.jcra.je/pdf/051101%20Competition-Jersey-Law--2005.pdf
  65. statute available at http://www.internationalcompetitionnetwork.org/media/archive0611/mergerjordanlaw.pdf
  66. See statute http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCOMPLEGALDB/Resources/CompetitivenesandMonopolyRestrictionLaw20060707_eng.pdf
  67. Statute available online at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/africa/Kenya/Restrictive%20Trade%20Practices.pdf
  68. Currently, an English version of the competition statute is unavailable.
  69. Statute available in Russian from The State Commission of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic for Anti-Monopoly Policy, at http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pravo.gov.kg%2Fzpp%2Fzakon.htm&hl=en&ie=UTF8&sl=ru&tl=en (Google translation of the referring page)
  70. Statute available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20962860%7EpagePK:2137398%7EpiPK:64581526%7EtheSitePK:2137348,00.html
  71. Statute available at http://www.competition.lv/uploaded_files/ENG/E_likumK.pdf
  72. Statute available at http://www.competition.lv/uploaded_files/ENG/E_likumK.pdf
  73. statute available at http://www.konkuren.lt/english/antitrust/legislation.htm
  74. Statute available in French from Legilux, at http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2004/0076/a076.pdf#page=2
  75. See articles 8-9 of competition statute, http://www.kzk.gov.mk/images/Law%20Amending%20the%20Law%20on%20Protection%20of%20Competition%20(Official%20Gazette%20of%20Republic%20of%20Macedonia%20no.22-07).pdf
  76. Statute available at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/africa/Malawi/1doc.pdf
  77. French version of statute available at http://www.remed.org/ORDONANC.rtf
  78. The statute covers both competition and consumer protection, so many of the provisions in the penalties section deal with consumer protection issues.
  79. Statute from the Malta Ministry of Justice, at http://docs.justice.gov.mt/lom/legislation/english/leg/vol_10/chapt379.pdf
  80. Statute available from the Mauritius Government website, http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/2003/bill6.doc
  81. Statute available at http://www.apeccp.org.tw/doc/Mexico/Competition/mxcom1.html
  82. Statute courtesy of the Mongolian government, at http://www.pmis.gov.mn/law/english/pdf/unfair_competition.pdf
  83. Statute available online at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20973121~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  84. Statute available online from the Global Competition Forum, at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/africa/Namibia/ACT511.pdf
  85. Statute available at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/europe/Netherlands/New%20regulations%20on%20economic%20competition.pdf
  86. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1986/0005/latest/DLM89442.html#DLM89442
  87. Statute available online at http://www.nigeria-law.org/InvestmentsAndSecuritiesDecreeNo45Of1999PartsXI-XIII.htm#Mergers,%20Take-Overs%20and%20Acquisitions
  88. Statute available from the Norwegian Competition Authority at http://www.konkurransetilsynet.no/portal/page?_pageid=235,471164&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&menuid=178459&p_d_i=-121&p_d_c=&p_d_v=178459&p_d_i=-7127&p_d_c=&p_d_v=178459&p_d_i=-12732&p_d_c=&p_d_v=178459&p_d_i=-12733&p_d_c=&p_d_v=178459
  89. http://www.konkurransetilsynet.no/portal/page?_pageid=235,471114&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&menuid=13086&p_d_i=-121&p_d_c=&p_d_v=416428&p_d_i=-7127&p_d_c=&p_d_v=416428&p_d_i=-12732&p_d_c=&p_d_v=416428&p_d_i=-12733&p_d_c=&p_d_v=416428
  90. http://www.konkurransetilsynet.no/portal/page?_pageid=235,471114&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&menuid=13086&p_d_i=-121&p_d_c=&p_d_v=425689&p_d_i=-7127&p_d_c=&p_d_v=425689&p_d_i=-12732&p_d_c=&p_d_v=425689&p_d_i=-12733&p_d_c=&p_d_v=425689
  91. Statute available from the World Bank, at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20965802~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  92. in Spanish, at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:21081222~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  93. Statute available from the World Bank, at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:21039381~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  94. although the statute does not provide for imprisonment, Article 19 states that fraudulent, severe competition violations may result in criminal prosecution
  95. Statute available at http://www.apeccp.org.tw/doc/Peru/Competition/pecom01.html
  96. The UIT is an administrative number, currently worth about 3400 Peruvian Nuevos (Peru's official currency)See more at http://www.apeccp.org.tw/doc/Peru/Competition/Competition_Framework.pdf
  97. The statute is available online at http://www.uokik.gov.pl/download/Z2Z4L3Vva2lrL2VuL2RlZmF1bHRfb3Bpc3kudjAvMjkvMS8xL3VzdGF3YV9hbnl0bW9ub3BvbG93YV9lbi5wZGY
  98. statute available at http://www.concorrencia.pt/Download/descre18ix.pdf
  99. Unofficial English translation available from the Competition Council, at http://www.competition.ro/en/Diverse/l21_1996_mod.pdf
  100. English translation of statute available at http://www.fas.gov.ru/english/legislation/12479.shtml
  101. link to statute: http://www.commerce.gov.sa/english/moci.aspx?Type=8&PageObjectId=731
  102. statute available in French at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20837263~isCURL:Y~menuPK:2137510~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html (note, page 2 discussing penalties appears after page 3.)
  103. statute available from Serbian Commission for Protection of Competition, at http://www.kzk.org.yu/?link=96&lang=1
  104. statute available at http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/
  105. Commission guidelines available at http://www.ccs.gov.sg/NR/rdonlyres/053F6B39-050C-4D90-BF1B-001542FBA3D6/17199/CCSGuideline_Penalty_Jul07FINAL2.pdf
  106. Statute available online at http://www.antimon.gov.sk/eng/?c=356
  107. Available online at http://www.uvk.gov.si/fileadmin/uvk.gov.si/pageuploads/ZPOmK__neuradno_precisceno_besedilo__-_ang.pdf
  108. statute available online at http://www.compcom.co.za/thelaw/ConsolidatedAct.doc
  109. Statute available from the Korea Free Trade Commission website, http://ftc.go.kr/data/hwp/(1)mrfta.doc
  110. As of 2007, Spain passed a new competition statute, but an English translation is currently unavailable. For a summary of some aspects of the law, please see http://www.rocajunyent.com/pdfs/THE%20NEW%20SPANISH%20COMPETITION%20ACT.pdf
  111. http://www.rocajunyent.com/pdfs/THE%20NEW%20SPANISH%20COMPETITION%20ACT.pdf, at page 3
  112. Statute available online at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/asia/Sri%20Lanka/Sri%20Lanka-Act.pdf
  113. Unofficial English translation of the statute available from the Swedish Competition Authority at http://www.kkv.se/upload/Filer/ENG/Publications/compact_eng.pdf
  114. statute at http://www.weko.admin.ch/imperia/md/images/weko/lcart-english-120107.pdf
  115. law available in Arabic from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and The Syria Report, at http://www.syria-report.com/doc/Competition_and_Anti-Trust_Law.pdf - Google translate was used to translate the statute into English.
  116. statute available online at http://law.moj.gov.tw/Eng/Fnews/FnewsContent.asp?msgid=169&msgType=en
  117. An English translation of the Competition Statute is currently unavailable. A Russian version is available from the Global Competition Forum website, http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/asia/Tajikistan/leg1.pdf
  118. Statute available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20825518~menuPK:2137510~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  119. Statute can be found at the World Bank site, at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTICE/EXTCOMPLEGALDB/0,,contentMDK:20962873~pagePK:2137398~piPK:64581526~theSitePK:2137348,00.html
  120. http://www.ttparliament.org/bills/acts/2006/a2006-13.pdf
  121. Statute available at http://www.rekabet.gov.tr/word/ekanun.doc
  122. statute available online at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/europe/Ukraine/LEGISLATION.pdf
  123. Available at http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2002/ukpga_20020040_en_17#pt6-pb1-l1g190
  124. http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/europe/UnitedKingdom/The%20Competition%20Act%201998.PDF
  125. Available at http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2002/ukpga_20020040_en_17#pt6-pb1-l1g190
  126. The text of the statute can be found at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/n_america/USA/us_saa.pdf
  127. Google translation available at http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.ccea.com.uy/boletines/leyN18159.htm&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=4&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DLey%2BN%25C2%25BA%2B18.159%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26channel%3Ds%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26hs%3D8yt%26sa%3DG
  128. statute available online at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/asia/Uzbekistan/competition.pdf
  129. Statute available at http://www.procompetencia.gov.ve/lppelc-eng.html
  130. Statute available online from the Asian Development Bank, at http://www.adb.org/Documents/Others/OGC-Toolkits/Competition-Law/documents/VN_Order_23_2004.pdf
  131. statute available online at http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/africa/Zambia/COMPETITION%20anDFAIR%20TRADING%20ACT.PDF
  132. http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/regions/africa/Zimbabwe/Competition%20Act.pdf
  133. As of 2008, Zimbabwe was experiencing hyperinflation, which makes the value of the $50K fine comparable to about $1US. For more, visit http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/20/news/Zimbabwe-Money-Chaos.php