EU Law, 2009

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Score = 29

Governed by:

  • EU law:
  • Articles 101[1] and 102[2] of the TFEU.
  • Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 [3] and
Note: With effect from 1 December 2009, Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty have become Articles 101 and 102 respectively of the TFEU.
Category Subcategory Score Comment
Scope Extraterritoriality 1 EU law governs whenever conduct has effects on trade between Member States pursuant to Article 3 of Regulation 1/2003.
Remedies Fines 1 Council Regulation 1/2003 (Chapter VI, Articles 23 and 24)
Prison Sentences 0
Divestitures 1 Article 8(4) of Regulation 139/2004 (EC Merger Regulation).
Private Enforcement 3rd Party Initiation 1 Council Regulation 1/2003 (Chapter III, Article 7(2))
Remedies Available to 3rd Parties 1 Private enforcement of Articles 81 and 82 of the EC treaty is mandated and encouraged by the European Commission.[4]
3rd Party Rights in Proceedings 1 Council Regulation 1/2003 (Chapter VIII, Article 3)) - 3rd parties may be heard by the Comission in proceedings; interested 3rd parties have the right to be heard in merger assessment proceedings (preamble to EC Merger Control Regulation 139/2004, para. 38)
Merger Notification Voluntary 0
Mandatory 3 Article 4(1), Articles 6 and 7 of EC Merger Regulation 139/2004.
Pre-merger 2 Article 4(1), Articles 6 and 7 of EC Merger Regulation 139/2004.
Post-merger 0
Merger Assessment Dominance 1 EC Merger Control Regulation 139/2004, Article 2(1)(b), 2(2) and 2(3)
Restriction of Competition 1 EC Merger Control Regulation 139/2004, Article 2(1), 2(2) and 2(3)
Public Interest (Pro D) 1 EC Merger Control Regulation 139/2004, Article 2(1)(b)
Public Interest (Pro Authority) 0 EC Merger Control Regulation 139/2004, Article 2(1)(b)
Other 0
Efficiency 0 Preamble to EC Merger Control Regulation 139/2004
Dominance Limits Access 1 Article 102(b) of the TEFF prohibits limiting production.
Abusive Acts 1 Article 102 of the TEFF prohibits abuse of a dominant position.
Price Setting 1 Article 102(a) of the TEFF prohibits price setting.
Discriminatory Pricing 1 Article 102(c) of the TEFF prohibits discriminatory conditions.
Resale Price Maintenance 1 Article 102(a) of the TEFF prohibits resale price maintenance.
Obstacles to Entry 1 Article 102 of the TEFF prohibits using predatory pricing to drive competitors from the market[5]
Efficiency Defense 0
Restrictive Trade Practices Price Fixing 1 Article 101(1)(a) of the TEFF prohibits price fixing.
Tying 1 Article 101(1)(e) of the TEFF prohibits tying.
Market Division 1 Article 101 of the TEFF prohibits market division[6]
Output Restraint 1 Article 101(1)(b)of the TEFF prohibits limiting production.
Market Sharing 1 Article 101(1)(c)of the TEFF prohibits market sharing.
Eliminating Competitors 1 Article 101(1) of the TEFF prohibits agreements that have the purpose or effect of eliminating competition.
Collusive Tendering/Bid-Rigging 1 Article 101 of the TEFF prohibits bid-rigging.[7]
Supply Refusal 1 Article 101(1)(b) bans refusal to supply.
Efficiency Defense 1 Article 101(3)of the TEFF allows an efficiency defense.

References

  1. available from the EC at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12008E101:EN:NOT
  2. available from the EC at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12008E102:EN:NOT
  3. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/competition/antitrust/legislation/regulations.html
  4. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/competition/antitrust/actionsdamages/files_white_paper/whitepaper_en.pdf
  5. See the EC antitrust overview, at http://ec.europa.eu/comm/competition/antitrust/overview_en.html
  6. Although the wording of the treaty seems to apply to market sharing, the EC also considers market division illegal. See the EU press release at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/07/29&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
  7. Although not explicitly stated in the statute, bid-rigging is considered anti-competitive behavior. See the case involving gas insulated switchgear, at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/80&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en